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High Plains Mosaic Pathogen


© Oklahoma State University

Pathogen(s) causing disease:

High Plains Tenuivirus (HPTV)

Symptoms:

Severe stunting, yellowing, and a strong mosaic. Discoloration is variable. Some leaves have green and yellow stripes at the leaf tips similar to wheat streak mosaic. Others have yellow spots. Still others have green islands on a light green background and look similar to soilborne mosaic. All of these types of leaves can occur on the same plant. Due to the confusing symptoms, HPV can only be reliably diagnosed by ELISA test.

Conditions:

 The most severe infection is found where volunteer wheat provides a "green bridge" through the summer between successive wheat crops. The worst case scenario is when wheat gets hailed just before maturity. This leads to an early crop of volunteer, and mites move onto it very readily from the old crop. A cool, wet summer allows maximum survival of the volunteer wheat and the mites. Then a long, warm fall allows plenty of time for mites to move onto the newly seeded wheat and begin reproduction. A hot, dry spring is the final blow because infected plants have poor roots and are more susceptible to drought. Wheat, barley, some varieties of oats, some varieties of corn, downy brome, green foxtail, and yellow foxtail are confirmed hosts of HPV.

Management:

The first and most important control is to break the bridge created by volunteer wheat.  The second control is to avoid early planting. Early planting allows the mites plenty of time to move into the field, reproduce and spread. Waiting until after the "fly-free" date is recommended for wheat streak mosaic control. There are no known wheat varieties with resistance to HPV. Since mites have a short life span destruction of volunteer wheat for 14-21 days prior to emergence of seedling wheat is imperative to help limit infections of wheat with WSMV and/or HPV in the fall.

Sources:

Kansas State University
Oklahoma State University

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