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USDA GAIN: Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar, Grain and Feed

05 October 2012

USDA GAIN: Turkey 2012 Sugar Semi-Annual UpdateUSDA GAIN: Turkey 2012 Sugar Semi-Annual Update

Turkey’s sugar sector is regulated by production quotas which remained unchanged in MY2013. Post expects that, given the normal climate conditions, this will result in an unchanged production figure of 2.3 million metric tons in MY2013.
USDA GAIN Report - Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar, Grain and Feed


Sugar Beets
Sugar, Centrifugal

Production: Sugar beets

The so called campaign period, when factories start processing sugar beets will commence on October 1st, 2012. The average national yield per decar (1,000 m2) is 5.3 tons, and exceeds 6 tons in central Anatolia. In MY 2013 post expects the harvested area to remain at 330,000 HA due to unchanged production quotas, and the sugar beet production to be 18.5 MMT.

While the planted area remains the same, sugar beet yield has been increasing due to the adoption of modern agriculture techniques and higher quality seeds. The beet yield per hectar (10,000 m2) has increased 13% from MY 2008 to MY 2012.

Production: Centrifugal Sugar

Turkey’s total sugar production quota for MY 2013 was announced by the Sugar Board as 2,532,000 MT. A breakdown of this quota for MY 2012/2013 is provided in the below table. [For table, please download the document]

The “A quota” is the primary production allowance and the “B quota” is an additional margin allowed for producers, which amounts to 4% of the A quota. At the end of the campaign period any excess sugar produced by the factories above their allocated quotas are sold as C sugar to exporters at world prices.

There are 33 sugar beet refineries in Turkey, 25 of which belong to the state-owned Turk Seker, and the remaining 8 refineries are private. The total production capacity of these 33 beet sugar factories is 3.1 MMT per year and the size of the beet-sugar sector is valued at more than US$ 3 billion. [For table, please download the document]

While the daily average beet processing capacity of the 25 factories under Turk Seker is 3,730 MT per day, the average beet processing capacity of private sector factories is 8,125 MT.

Production: Starch-Based Sweeteners (SBS)

There are six starch based sugar (SBS) producers and the total production capacity of these 6 SBS factories is 1 MMT per year.

The SBS quota was set at 244,400 MT for MY 2013 and the breakdown of this quota among the 6 producers is provided below. [For table, please download the document]

The B quota is not allocated for SBS producers, but the Cabinet has the right to increase the A quota up to 50% annually. Utilizing this authority, this 50% increase has been granted in MY 2010 and 2011, and a 35% increase has been granted in MY 2012 for SBS producers.


Home-use and industrial sugar consumption increases seem correlated with the increase in population and GDP.

Currently, total annual sugar and sweetener consumption is around 2.3 MMT, where SBS accounts for approximately 250,000 MT, beet sugar accounts for 1.9MMT, and unregistered and smuggled sugar accounts for the remainder. The portion of SBS in total sugar consumption is increasing every year due to increased utilization by industry.


Turkey’s sugar exports increased 8.6% in MY 2012. The largest export market is Iraq, with 69%. In MY 2012, exports to Iraq decreased 8%, but this was offset by the considerable increases to Syria and Turkmenistan. Turkey also began exporting to new markets, such as Niger and Benin.

The tariff rate on sugar imports to Turkey remains at 135 percent on the CIF value, which makes Turkey’s sugar imports negligible. Import duties on products containing sugar such as candy, cookies, and chocolates vary between 8.3% and 15.4%, plus an additional tax called “agricultural contribution” is applied based on the starch/glucose ratio and milk fat percentage. This procedure was adopted from the EU system.

The tables below give import and export quantity figures in metric tons for refined sugar in solid form (HS Code: 170199) [For tables, please download the document]


Production quotas helped deplete Turkish sugar stocks over the last few years. Any remaining stocks would belong to Turk Seker and they sell this stock at discounted prices (ranging from 5% to 8%, depending on the amount purchased) before the beginning of the new campaign period. Post expects sugar stocks to decrease even further in MY 2013, due to unchanged quotas and because excess sugar production is exported.


Production quotas remained the same for three consecutive marketing years (MY 2011, 2012 and 2013) and are significantly lower than the established production capacity of both beet sugar and SBS processing plants. This challenges all producers and leads to a consistent struggle of seeking higher quotas.

Even though the privatization of Turk Seker factories is still at a suspended state, some sugar plants (like Kayseri Seker) are changing their administration to improve efficiency and profitability.

Turkey issued a communiqué published on July 17, 2012, that included stevia in the sweeteners import list as Steviosit with the customs number 2938.


Turk Seker and other private producers are also wholesalers who handle the marketing of sugar to retailers. All SBS producers and distributors are private.

The price paid by Turk Seker to farmers for their sugar beets has been 130 TL/ton in MY2012.

The wholesale price of sugar is 2.73 TL/kg as of August 2012. A 50kg bag of crystal sugar is sold for 115 TL (including 8% VAT) and a 20 kg bag of cube sugar is sold for 55TL (exchange rate for 1 US$ is 1.80 TL as of September 2012). Prices are not expected to change drastically in MY 2013 due to unchanged production and market conditions.

C quota sugar sales prices applied by Turk Seker for the first 6 months of 2012 are outlined in the table below. [For table, please download the document]

In addition to buying C sugar, exporters of sugar products may also import sugar for inward processing purposes, where they do not pay the 135% duty imposed on sugar imports, with the precondition that they export the end product and not sell it domestically. [For Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics, please download the document]


Turkey has announced a 2% mandatory mixture rate of bio-ethanol into fuel beginning in January 2013. This will require 54 million liters of ethanol production. No additional investment will be required in terms of production facilities because the current bio-ethanol production capacity of Turkey is 149.5 million liters. This capacity belongs mainly to four producers; the biggest of which is Konya Seker (sugar beets) with a capacity of 84 million liters. The others are Tarkim (corn), Teskim (corn and wheat), and Eskisehir Sugar Plant (sugar beets).

Currently bioethanol mixture up to 2% is voluntarily applied. The government supports this by making the applied amount exempt from Special Consumption Tax. The producers are providing bio-ethanol to their contracted gas stations (for example Tarkim works with Petrol Ofisi - the most wide-spread gas station in Turkey, and Konya Seker works with more local gas station companies). Currently 35 million liters of bioethanol is mixed to fuel, and the rest of the production is used for alcohol supply mainly to the industry such as ink and paint production, as well as a small rate for food use.

October 2012

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